Document Type: Review Article


1 MSc, Department of Radiology, School of Paramedical Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2 MSc, Student research committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3 PhD, Department of Radiology, School of Paramedical Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

4 PhD, Ionizing and Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC), School of Paramedical Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


A bystander effect is biological changes in non-irradiated cells by transmitted signals from irradiated bystander cells, which causes the radiation toxic effects on the adjacent non-irradiated tissues. This phenomenon occurs by agents such as ionizing radiation, ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and chemotherapy. The bystander effect includes biological processes such as damage to DNA, cell death, chromosomal abnormalities, delay and premature mutations and micronuclei production. The most involved genes in creating this phenomenon are cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the nuclear factor of kappa B (NFkB) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs).
Radiation generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) can damage DNA, membranes and protein buildings. Studies have shown that Vitamin C, Hesperidin, and melatonin can reduce the number of ROS and have a protective role.
Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are the most abundant nanoparticles produced and when they enter cells, they can create DNA damage. Studies have shown that combined treatment with UVR and silver nanoparticles could form γ-H2AX and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) synergistically.
This article reviews the direct and the bystander effects of UVR on the nuclear DNA, the effect of radioprotectors and Ag NPs on these effects.


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