Document Type : Systematic Review


1 MSc, Department of Nursing, School of Nursing, Larestan University of Medical Sciences, Larestan, Iran

2 PhD, Department of Anesthesiology, School of Nursing, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3 MD, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

4 MSc Student, Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

5 DDS, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


Background: Approximately 50% of dental amalgam is elemental mercury by weight. Accumulating body of evidence now shows that not only static magnetic fields (SMF) but both ionizing and non-ionizing electromagnetic radiations can increase the rate of mercury release from dental amalgam fillings. Iranian scientists firstly addressed this issue in 2008 but more than 10 years later, it became viral worldwide.
Objective: This review was aimed at evaluating available data on the magnitude of the effects of different physical stressors (excluding chewing and brushing) on the release of toxic mercury from dental amalgam fillings and microleakage.
Material and Methods: The papers reviewed in this study were searched from PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus (up to 1 December 2019). The keywords were identified from our initial research matching them with those existing on the database of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). The non-English papers and other types of articles were not included in this review.
Results: Our review shows that exposure to static magnetic fields (SMF) such as those generated by MRI, electromagnetic fields (EMF) such as those produced by mobile phones; ionizing electromagnetic radiations such as X-rays and non- Ionizing electromagnetic radiation such as lasers and light cure devices can significantly increase the release of mercury from dental amalgam restorations and/or cause microleakage.
Conclusion: The results of this review show that a wide variety of physical stressors ranging from non-ionizing electromagnetic fields to ionizing radiations can significantly accelerate the release of mercury from amalgam and cause microleakage.