Human is usually exposed to environmental radiation from natural and man-made sources. Therefore, it is important to investigate the effects of exposure to environmental radiation, partly related to understanding and protecting against the risk of exposure to environmental radiation with beneficial and adverse impacts on human life. The rapid development of technologies causes a dramatic enhancement of radiation in the human environment. In this study, we address the biological effects caused by different fractions of non-ionizing electromagnetic irradiation to humans and describe possible approaches for minimizing adverse health effects initiated by radiation. The main focus was on biological mechanisms initiated by irradiation and represented protection, and safety approaches to prevent health disorders.