Document Type : Systematic Review

Authors

1 BSc, Department of International Affairs (IAD), Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

2 MD, Allied Health Science, School of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

3 PhD, Bevelacqua Resources, Richland, Washington 99352, United States

4 MD, Student Research Committee, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

5 BSc, Biotechnology Student, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

6 PhD, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

7 MD, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

8 MSc, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

9 PhD, Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

10 MD, PhD, Department of Radiation Oncology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University, Chicago, IL, USA

11 MD, PhD, Department of Radiation Oncology, Edward Hines Jr VA Hospital Hines, Illinois, USA

Abstract

Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most significant public health concerns and tremendous economic challenges. Studies conducted over the past decades show that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) may relieve AD symptoms. 
Objective: To determine if exposure to RF-EMFs emitted by cellphones affect the risk of AD.
Material and Methods: In this review, all relevant published articles reporting an association of cell phone use with AD were studied. We systematically searched international datasets to identify relevant studies. Finally, 33 studies were included in the review. Our review discusses the effects of RF-EMFs on the amyloid β (Aβ), oxidative stress, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), neuronal death, and astrocyte responses. Moreover, the role of exposure parameters, including the type of exposure, its duration, and specific absorption rate (SAR), are discussed. 
Results: Progressive factors of AD such as Aβ, myelin basic protein (MBP), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, and neurofilament light polypeptide (NFL) were decreased. While tau protein showed no change, factors affecting brain activity such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), cerebral blood flow (CBF), brain temperature, and neuronal activity were increased.  
Conclusion: Exposure to low levels of RF-EMFs can reduce the risk of AD by increasing MAPK and GFAP and decreasing MBP. Considering the role of apoptosis in AD and the effect of RF-EMF on the progression of the process, this review indicates the positive effect of these exposures.

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