Background: The P300 signal, an endogenous component of event-related potentials, is extracted from an electroencephalography signal and employed in Brain-computer Interface (BCI) devices.
Objective: The current study aimed to address challenges in extracting useful features from P300 components and detecting P300 through a hybrid unsupervised manner based on Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Long Short-term Memory (LSTM).
Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, CNN as a useful method for the P300 classification task emphasizes spatial characteristics of data. However, CNN and LSTM networks are combined to modify the classification system by extracting both spatial and temporal features. Then, the CNN-LSTM network was trained in an unsupervised learning method based on an autoencoder to improve Signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR) by extracting main components from latent space. To deal with imbalanced data, an Adaptive Synthetic Sampling Approach (ADASYN) is used and augmented without any duplication.
Results: The trained model, tested on the BCI competition III dataset, including two normal subjects, with an accuracy of 95% and 94% for subjects A and B in P300 detection, respectively.
Conclusion: CNN-LSTM, was embedded into an autoencoder and introduced to simultaneously extract spatial and temporal features and manage the computational complexity of the method. Further, ADASYN as an augmentation method was proposed to deal with the imbalanced nature of data, which not only maintained feature space as before but also preserved anatomical features of P300. High-quality results highlight the suitable efficiency of the proposed method.